- Why was government necessary?
Government’s history may not exactly be known but it is safe to say that government is as old as human society itself. At some point in the past as the population grew in a particular area, there was pressure to have a system of laws that the society members had to follow since chaos would arise in a society if there is no governing body to set guidelines to its constituents. Public order and maintenance of security is vital to every society.
- Types of government
All societies are established under some form of power or government which vary from one country to another. It should also be noted that government is constantly changing as history had shown. Today we will talk about the two most popular forms of government - Democracy and Monarchy
Democracy in a nutshell is a type of government - "Of the people, for the people, by the people." In a democracy, power is vested in citizens of the country, to elect a government and the government is answerable to the people.
Monarchy is a form of government which was very common during ancient and medieval times. Here, only one person will be the main authority in ruling the country. In general, monarchy’s position is inherited. The people of a country have no say on electing their ruler.
- Principle of Democracy
Democracy is based on a principle of equality and freedom. Equality defined in terms where all citizens are all equal before the law. Basically, positions and statuses do not matter. When one breaks the law, he or she is subject to sanctions. People gain a sense of participation in the process of choosing their government.
- Pillars of democracy
The democracy is built with four pillars-
Legislative: Legislative pillar basically is responsible for making laws that will govern a state. These laws are either formed directly by people (Direct democracy) or through representatives elected by people (Indirect democracy).
Executive: This pillar of democracy is responsible for implementing the laws formed by Legislative section, and issue orders for their proper implementation.
Judiciary: It keeps a check on laws (given by legislative) and orders (issued by executive) and ensures that these laws and orders do not curtail the fundamental rights of citizens of a country.
Press/Newspaper: It ensures the transparency in the working of above three pillars.
- Benefits of Democracy
A timely election is held, if the people are not satisfied with the performance of the present government, they can change the government in the next election. This forces the present government to work efficiently else they will lose the power in the next election. For a successful democracy, apart from a successfully elected government by the majority, good opposition is equally required. It keeps checks on the ruling party’s work and opposes when needed.
- The role of media
Media is also very crucial in a democracy and freedom of the press is one of the measures of the extent of democracy in a country. It has the duty to bring into light the ground reality, with its wide reach it can raise the concerns of a common man.
- The Monarch
Supreme power is bestowed on an individual and it can be absolute or nominal. The ‘head of state’ of a land with this kind of government often holds the title for life or until abdication. The leader, who is called a monarch, is wholly set apart from all other members of the state. The monarch typically makes all the law and decisions.
- Inefficiency of the ruler
The ruler may form policies which are beneficial for him but not for the country, or the ruler may be incapable of performing his duties efficiently. Still, nothing can be done by the people. The system of inheritance can also lead to inefficiency at times as the ruler and his generation have the security of their future whether they perform or not.
- No need of frequent elections
The huge expenditure of election is saved and decision-making process is fast. There is no need to conduct frequent elections, as the entire country is handled by a single person.
- Types of Monarchy
There are two types of monarchies - constitutional and elective.
Constitutional Monarchy is the one where the power of the monarch is significantly limited and the true national supremacy is likely to lie with the elected government
An elective monarchy is where the monarch is actually elected by the people for a specific term as the head of their state. But still in elective monarchy, one person holding the supreme authority is dangerous.
- Democracy vs Monarchy
Thus, after studying both the types of governments, it can be logically inferred that democracy is better than a monarchy. But a flawed democracy is a threat to rights and justice of people.
- Choosing a responsible leader
Handing over the responsibility of the entire country on a monarch is potentially risky, instead having a group of people to make decision seems to be fair. Any power in any modern nation should be put in the hands of someone who is accountable to the people of the nation and laws of the land. The governance is the most important factor for the proper functioning of the country.
Thus, the government and its leaders should have checks and balances and must be transparent, as much as possible.
If you want to have a brief idea about how to present these points in front of a group, do watch the video-